Ander Permanyer-Ugartemendia received his PhD in History at the Institut Universitari d’Història Jaume Vicens i Vives (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona), and he received his Ba in East Asian Studies at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. He is a researcher in the Alter Group (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona), and also a member of the Research Group on Empires, Metropolises, and Extra-European Societies (Grimse, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona). His research assesses the Spanish trade in East Asia, between 1760 and 1840, the Spanish opium trade, as well as the activities of the Royal Philippine Company (Real Compañía de Filipinas) in Asia, a chartered company created by the Bourbon monarchy in the 18th century for the economic development of the Philippines by the end of the Manila Galleon trade. He has been a visiting researcher in the Department of History at the University of Chicago, at the Institute of Modern History (Academia Sinica, Taiwan), as well as in the Laboratoire Idees at Université Le Havre Normandie. He has been a recipient of the Ico Asia Pacífico Fellowship, as well as of the Ramón Carande Award, Edition xxvii, granted by the Spanish Association of Economic History. He is currently working on a book on the Spanish involvement in the opium trade in East Asia in the beginning of the 19th century, for which he is supported by a Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Fellowship.